When LTE was launched a decade ago a clear cut was made from GSM security when it came to SIM cards and authentication. As far as I remember, LTE was the first system in which mutual authentication between network and devices became mandatory. Fortunately, by the time LTE came around the corner, most subscribers already … Continue reading Are New SIM Cards Required for 5G SA?
The show must go on, so at some point, network operators will start putting 5G core networks in place which means that mobile devices will use the 5G NR Standalone (SA) air interface for signaling instead of LTE anchor cells. So I had a look at 3GPP TS 38.331 which contains the Radio Resource Control … Continue reading 5G Standalone Architecture – RRC Inactive State
When you look through the 5G core network specification documents of 3GPP such as TS 23.501 and 23.502 the idea I got was that it’s pretty much the same as before. Yes, the interfaces and network components have new names but by and large the 5G core network does the same things as today’s core … Continue reading The Cloud Native 5G Core Network
A couple of weeks ago in January 2020 I spotted the first 5G antenna at the cell site that serves my home in Cologne on my way home. My first reaction: ‘Hm, that wasn’t there this morning…’. It wasn’t switched-on straight away. but when I came back from vacation early in February, I was greeted … Continue reading I’ve Got 5G At Home Now!
Recently I’ve been looking a bit at the 5G NR Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol in 3GPP TS 38.311 to get an idea how it is structured and how it compares to the LTE RRC protocol specified in 3GPP TS 36.331. As Ralf points out in the comments below (thanks very much!) some parts of … Continue reading 5G RRC Protocol And How It Compares to 4G RRC
Already back in 2018 I wrote a post that one new thing about 5G in TDD band n78 will be that network operators need to agree on a common uplink/downlink pattern and in addition synchronize their networks. Recently I was asked to what level of accuracy the networks need to be synchronized so I did … Continue reading 5G TDD Inter-Operator Network Synchronization
After the previous post on what is inside a 5G NR CORSET and DCI messages, let’s have a look at how downlink assignments and uplink transmit opportunities for a device are signaled in a DCI. As you might remember from the previous post, the DCI contains, among other information, information on the frequency domain resource … Continue reading 5G NR Resource Assignment
In a previous post I’ve been looking at the concept of the 5G Control Area Set (CORESET). The essence of the post was that the CORESET is the areas in the 5G NR resource grid on the air interface in which scheduling information for downlink and uplink data is sent from the network to mobile … Continue reading What is Inside a 5G CORESET?
Carrying on from the previous post on things that are different in 5G NR compared to LTE, the CORESET comes to mind. When I first heard the term I had to think of 1960s core memory, a core dump and other memory related things. But the 5G CORESET is something entirely different.
Back in the ‘good old days’, things were simple on the LTE air interface. It served one purpose and one purpose only: Fast Internet connectivity. This allowed to keep most things about the air interface static. The 5G NR interface on the other hand tries to keep all options open for the future and the … Continue reading What Are 5G Bandwidth Parts?