In the previous two parts on the topic I’ve been looking at why there is a need to evolve the initial 5G network architecture in which 5G base stations are merely a side-kick to the LTE access and LTE core to a pure 5G access and a 5G core network. There are several ways how … Continue reading 5G Beyond Option 3 – Pt. 3
In the previous part on this topic I’ve been looking at why it is unlikely that we will see 5G NR Option 3 networks directly transitioning to a 5G-only Option 2 architecture. So how could intermediate steps look like?
At the moment, most network operators scrambling to deploy 5G are doing so based on EN-DC (EUTRAN-New Radio – Dual Connectivity) which is also referred to as ‘Option 3’. As the longer abbreviation suggests, this way of deploying 5G uses the ‘legacy’ LTE radio network as a base and connects a 5G radio network alongside … Continue reading 5G Beyond Option 3 – Pt. 1
It’s sad to see history repeating itself. Back in 2012 one network operator in the US that, at the time, had not yet introduced LTE decided to just rebrand its dual carrier HSPA network into 4G. Done, a 4G network overnight out of thin air with a bit of a creative redesign of the network … Continue reading US Marketing Does It Again – 3G became 4G – Now 4G becomes 5G
There is a lot of media attention in Germany on the upcoming spectrum auction for 5G that is scheduled for early 2019. Like in previous rounds, spectrum is awarded via an auction to the highest bidders. Someone recently asked me if spectrum has always been auctioned so I had a look in my archive to … Continue reading 5G Auctions – Let’s Look Back to 1989
In a previous post I referenced a paper of Keysight as a good starting point to understand how Active Antenna Systems (AAS) that have been specified for 3GPP 5G New Radio (NR) could improve overall capacity in a cell and extend the cell range. Today, I have found another interesting paper on the topic that … Continue reading 5G Active Antenna Systems (AAS) Revisited
If you are interested in how a 5G EN-DC Option 3 connection is set-up between the mobile device and different components in the network the best but also the hardest way is to look up the procedures in a number of different 3GPP specifications. 3GPP TS 37.340 is a good starting point for EN-DC. Another … Continue reading 5G EN-DC Option 3 – Call Flows
Speaking about how much spectrum is needed by a network operator to make a difference with 5G, I had a closer look at how the German telco regulator wants to go forward with the auction of spectrum in the 3.6 GHz band. The spectrum auction is scheduled to take place in 2019 and the details … Continue reading 5G Spectrum For Germany – How Much For Whom?
While in Europe, most network operators have the 3.x GHz band in mind when thinking about 5G deployments. Some network operators in the US, however, want to launch 5G in the mmWave bands in the 20-50 GHz range. So how will antennas in mobile devices look like for these bands?
The current situation around 5G reminds me a bit of how things were a decade ago when first 4G LTE networks came on air. Network operators in the US launched LTE with 10 MHz of spectrum and overall, their LTE networks where not much faster, if at all, compared to 3G UMTS/HSPA in Europe that … Continue reading 5G – How Much Spectrum Do You Need To Make A Difference?