In most situations the limiting factor when transmitting data over the air between a mobile device and a network is the uplink transmission power of the mobile device. In practice that means that when the mobile device is unable to increase its transmission power any further, it can still focus the transmission power on a … Continue reading 5G EN-DC – Split Bearer In Downlink Only
Every now and then I get the question why virtually all network operators that want to offer 5G mobile service go for the non-standalone setup first that requires LTE as the anchor instead of going directly to a standalone setup. There are a number of reasons for this but I guess that spectrum availability is … Continue reading Why Not Standalone 5G From The Beginning?
In 5G, Massive MIMO is considered as the holy grail to increase individual datarates, to improve cell capacity, to extend range, or any combination of these. mMIMO is not a single technique, however, there are a number of different flavors that can to a degree be mixed and matched to achieve different things.
I recently came across this paper of Huawei on 5G Spectrum matters and one paragraph in particular caught my attention: “[…] inter-operator synchronisation and alignment of uplink/downlink transmissions (slot and frame synchronization) is […] necessary for efficient deployment of 5G NR networks in unpaired assignments.” In other words this sentence says that network operators using … Continue reading 5G TDD: Synchronization Across Networks Required?
The abbreviation EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity) indicates that in this type of 5G deployment, 4G LTE and 5G NR will be used simultaneously. However, it looks like that the combination of some frequency bands might prove to be a bit problematic due to self interference as laid out in this interesting whitepaper … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: What is Single Uplink?
I couple of days ago I was wondering what Supplementary Uplink (SUL) for 5G is all about, if it is supported for EN-DC (simultaneous LTE+5G data transmission) and what potential benefits it might have. I can pretty much understand how SUL would help for 5G standalone operation, let’s say on 3.x GHz. The problem here … Continue reading 5G – Supplementary Uplink for EN-DC?
One thing I’ve been wondering for some time now is how in 5G EN-DC, user data is split between the 4G and 5G base station in a way that takes changing RF conditions into account. It’s no good to just assign a certain data rate to the 4G and 5G side when a split bearer … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Flow Control Between 4G and 5G
This is a follow up post to my original post on 5G EN-DC, the LTE/5G Dual Connectivity (DC) variant of 3GPP 5G. About a year has passed and a lot of progress has been made in 3GPP TS 37.340, which describes the interworking between the LTE eNB and the 5G NR gNB. One thing that … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Let’s Talk About Signaling – SRB1/2, SRB-3, Split-SRB
One thing I find quite interesting from a historical point of view is, that the first 5G networks will be based on TDD instead of FDD, at least on the 5G side of the equation.
These days, there is a lot of hype in the press about the race to get 5G networks off the ground. All press reports I’ve come across so far are about non-standalone network deployments in which the 4G network is the anchor for the connection and 5G resources are added when available. For an intro … Continue reading Still Lots of ‘Red Text’ in the 5G NR Standalone RRC Spec