The abbreviation EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity) indicates that in this type of 5G deployment, 4G LTE and 5G NR will be used simultaneously. However, it looks like that the combination of some frequency bands might prove to be a bit problematic due to self interference as laid out in this interesting whitepaper … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: What is Single Uplink?
I couple of days ago I was wondering what Supplementary Uplink (SUL) for 5G is all about, if it is supported for EN-DC (simultaneous LTE+5G data transmission) and what potential benefits it might have. I can pretty much understand how SUL would help for 5G standalone operation, let’s say on 3.x GHz. The problem here … Continue reading 5G – Supplementary Uplink for EN-DC?
One thing I’ve been wondering for some time now is how in 5G EN-DC, user data is split between the 4G and 5G base station in a way that takes changing RF conditions into account. It’s no good to just assign a certain data rate to the 4G and 5G side when a split bearer … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Flow Control Between 4G and 5G
This is a follow up post to my original post on 5G EN-DC, the LTE/5G Dual Connectivity (DC) variant of 3GPP 5G. About a year has passed and a lot of progress has been made in 3GPP TS 37.340, which describes the interworking between the LTE eNB and the 5G NR gNB. One thing that … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Let’s Talk About Signaling – SRB1/2, SRB-3, Split-SRB
One thing I find quite interesting from a historical point of view is, that the first 5G networks will be based on TDD instead of FDD, at least on the 5G side of the equation.
These days, there is a lot of hype in the press about the race to get 5G networks off the ground. All press reports I’ve come across so far are about non-standalone network deployments in which the 4G network is the anchor for the connection and 5G resources are added when available. For an intro … Continue reading Still Lots of ‘Red Text’ in the 5G NR Standalone RRC Spec
As if there weren’t already enough deployment options for the upcoming 5G network standard, it turns out that for 5G Non-Standalone Option 3, there are actually 3 different variants: 3, 3A and 3X. So what exactly is the difference between them?
In many countries, 5G networks will be launched initially in a configuration referred to ‘Non-Standalone Architecture – Option 3’. This means that the mobile device connects to a 4G cell that has a co-located 5G cell which it can then include in the data transfer. This is why ‘option 3’ is also referred to as … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: How Does The UE Signal Its 5G Capabilities?
And yet another 5G core network post, this time on session management and network slicing. I already had a post on network slicing from a radio network point of view a while ago but at the time it wasn’t quite clear how the 5G RAN will interact with a 5G core for network slicing. Recently, … Continue reading The 5G Core – Part 8 – Session Management and Network Slicing
In part 6, I’ve been musing a bit about the inter-play between Connection-, Registration- and Session Management. In this part, let’s have a closer look at Session Management and in particular at the standard features that are required for mobile Internet access.