Ever since GPRS came around the corner one and a half decades ago there’s been this concept of international roaming with ‘local breakout’ in which IP packets of roaming subscribers are sent directly to the Internet from the visited network. Sounds nice but in practice, it’s not really used. Instead, the current approach is referred … Continue reading The 5G Core Network (5GC) – Part 3 – Local Breakout
In part one of this mini-series on the 5G core network I’ve taken a look at some of the new concepts and how the network entities there with their new names map to what we already know from the EPC, i.e. the 4G core network. Now that this is done let’s have a look at … Continue reading The 5G Core Network (5GC) – Part 2 – Identifiers
When network operators are ready to go beyond 5G EN-DC, which basically means that a mobile device camps on a 4G cell and a 5G cell is added for additional speed, they require a 5G core network. To find out more about the 5GC, a good starting points are 3GPP TS 23.501 (System Architecture – … Continue reading The 5G Core Network (5GC) – Part 1 – Network Entities
In the previous two parts on the topic I’ve been looking at why there is a need to evolve the initial 5G network architecture in which 5G base stations are merely a side-kick to the LTE access and LTE core to a pure 5G access and a 5G core network. There are several ways how … Continue reading 5G Beyond Option 3 – Pt. 3
In the previous part on this topic I’ve been looking at why it is unlikely that we will see 5G NR Option 3 networks directly transitioning to a 5G-only Option 2 architecture. So how could intermediate steps look like?
At the moment, most network operators scrambling to deploy 5G are doing so based on EN-DC (EUTRAN-New Radio – Dual Connectivity) which is also referred to as ‘Option 3’. As the longer abbreviation suggests, this way of deploying 5G uses the ‘legacy’ LTE radio network as a base and connects a 5G radio network alongside … Continue reading 5G Beyond Option 3 – Pt. 1
Today lets have a look at how the 5G Core (5GC) does Connection-, Registration- and Session-Management for 5G devices. As in the previous posts, the procedures are described in 3GPP TS 23.501 which is the 5G analog to the 4G LTE core network description in 3GPP TS 23.401. I guess the similar number is no … Continue reading The 5G Core – Part 6 – Connection-, Registration- And Session Management
If you go by 3GPP and common sense it can be expected that most operators having an LTE network today will launch 5G as what is referred to as 5G EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity), a.k.a. 5G NR ‘option 3’ in 3GPP circles. In other words, mobile devices will still camp on the … Continue reading What Comes After 5G EN-DC?