In many countries, 5G networks will be launched initially in a configuration referred to ‘Non-Standalone Architecture – Option 3’. This means that the mobile device connects to a 4G cell that has a co-located 5G cell which it can then include in the data transfer. This is why ‘option 3’ is also referred to as … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: How Does The UE Signal Its 5G Capabilities?
If you go by 3GPP and common sense it can be expected that most operators having an LTE network today will launch 5G as what is referred to as 5G EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity), a.k.a. 5G NR ‘option 3’ in 3GPP circles. In other words, mobile devices will still camp on the … Continue reading What Comes After 5G EN-DC?
In many cases 5G will come to smartphones, tablets and other devices in the form of 4G-5G dual-connectivity, also referred to as EN-DC (E-UTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity). While the mobile is Idle state it will camp on a 4G LTE cell. A 5G NR cell is only added by the network once the … Continue reading LTE Core Network Enhancements for 5G EN-DC
In the first part of this series, I emphasized that in 3GPP Release 15, a major focus is to get a first incarnation of 5G into the field that complements 4G LTE. Instead of today’s approach where a device is either connected to GSM, or to UMTS or to LTE, i.e. only to one technology … Continue reading 5G – Part 3 – Dual Connectivity (EN-DC)
As if there weren’t already enough deployment options for the upcoming 5G network standard, it turns out that for 5G Non-Standalone Option 3, there are actually 3 different variants: 3, 3A and 3X. So what exactly is the difference between them?
When network operators are ready to go beyond 5G EN-DC, which basically means that a mobile device camps on a 4G cell and a 5G cell is added for additional speed, they require a 5G core network. To find out more about the 5GC, a good starting points are 3GPP TS 23.501 (System Architecture – … Continue reading The 5G Core Network (5GC) – Part 1 – Network Entities
In the previous post I looked at 3GPP TS 23.401 and how the UE, the RAN and the LTE core network signal their 5G capabilities. TS 23.401 states that the LTE eNodeB signals a locally connected 5G gNB to the UE. But how does it actually do that?
Part 3 of my series on 5G has given an overview of 5G-New Radio Option 3 Non-Standalone, which I think is how 5G is likely to be deployed in practice first: In loose combination with LTE. Option 3 basically puts a 5G gNB next to a 4G eNB base station. The LTE eNB controls connectivity … Continue reading 5G – Part 4 – LTE-NR Carrier Aggregation – DC_3A-7A-20A-n78A
Two and a half years ago in March 2015 I had my first post on 5G on this site about 3GPP kicking off its 5G activities. A lot has happened since then and I had the occasional post but now things are getting really exciting for me: Various 3GPP groups have started churning out the … Continue reading 5G – Part 1 – A First Look Into The TS’es