The abbreviation EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity) indicates that in this type of 5G deployment, 4G LTE and 5G NR will be used simultaneously. However, it looks like that the combination of some frequency bands might prove to be a bit problematic due to self interference as laid out in this interesting whitepaper … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: What is Single Uplink?
I couple of days ago I was wondering what Supplementary Uplink (SUL) for 5G is all about, if it is supported for EN-DC (simultaneous LTE+5G data transmission) and what potential benefits it might have. I can pretty much understand how SUL would help for 5G standalone operation, let’s say on 3.x GHz. The problem here … Continue reading 5G – Supplementary Uplink for EN-DC?
One thing I’ve been wondering for some time now is how in 5G EN-DC, user data is split between the 4G and 5G base station in a way that takes changing RF conditions into account. It’s no good to just assign a certain data rate to the 4G and 5G side when a split bearer … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Flow Control Between 4G and 5G
This is a follow up post to my original post on 5G EN-DC, the LTE/5G Dual Connectivity (DC) variant of 3GPP 5G. About a year has passed and a lot of progress has been made in 3GPP TS 37.340, which describes the interworking between the LTE eNB and the 5G NR gNB. One thing that … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: Let’s Talk About Signaling – SRB1/2, SRB-3, Split-SRB
In many countries, 5G networks will be launched initially in a configuration referred to ‘Non-Standalone Architecture – Option 3’. This means that the mobile device connects to a 4G cell that has a co-located 5G cell which it can then include in the data transfer. This is why ‘option 3’ is also referred to as … Continue reading 5G EN-DC: How Does The UE Signal Its 5G Capabilities?
If you go by 3GPP and common sense it can be expected that most operators having an LTE network today will launch 5G as what is referred to as 5G EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity), a.k.a. 5G NR ‘option 3’ in 3GPP circles. In other words, mobile devices will still camp on the … Continue reading What Comes After 5G EN-DC?
In many cases 5G will come to smartphones, tablets and other devices in the form of 4G-5G dual-connectivity, also referred to as EN-DC (E-UTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity). While the mobile is Idle state it will camp on a 4G LTE cell. A 5G NR cell is only added by the network once the … Continue reading LTE Core Network Enhancements for 5G EN-DC
In the first part of this series, I emphasized that in 3GPP Release 15, a major focus is to get a first incarnation of 5G into the field that complements 4G LTE. Instead of today’s approach where a device is either connected to GSM, or to UMTS or to LTE, i.e. only to one technology … Continue reading 5G – Part 3 – Dual Connectivity (EN-DC)
One thing I find quite interesting from a historical point of view is, that the first 5G networks will be based on TDD instead of FDD, at least on the 5G side of the equation.
These days, there is a lot of hype in the press about the race to get 5G networks off the ground. All press reports I’ve come across so far are about non-standalone network deployments in which the 4G network is the anchor for the connection and 5G resources are added when available. For an intro … Continue reading Still Lots of ‘Red Text’ in the 5G NR Standalone RRC Spec