If you go by 3GPP and common sense it can be expected that most operators having an LTE network today will launch 5G as what is referred to as 5G EN-DC (eUTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity), a.k.a. 5G NR ‘option 3’ in 3GPP circles. In other words, mobile devices will still camp on the … Continue reading What Comes After 5G EN-DC?
In many cases 5G will come to smartphones, tablets and other devices in the form of 4G-5G dual-connectivity, also referred to as EN-DC (E-UTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity). While the mobile is Idle state it will camp on a 4G LTE cell. A 5G NR cell is only added by the network once the … Continue reading LTE Core Network Enhancements for 5G EN-DC
In the first part of this series, I emphasized that in 3GPP Release 15, a major focus is to get a first incarnation of 5G into the field that complements 4G LTE. Instead of today’s approach where a device is either connected to GSM, or to UMTS or to LTE, i.e. only to one technology … Continue reading 5G – Part 3 – Dual Connectivity (EN-DC)
In the previous post I looked at 3GPP TS 23.401 and how the UE, the RAN and the LTE core network signal their 5G capabilities. TS 23.401 states that the LTE eNodeB signals a locally connected 5G gNB to the UE. But how does it actually do that?
Part 3 of my series on 5G has given an overview of 5G-New Radio Option 3 Non-Standalone, which I think is how 5G is likely to be deployed in practice first: In loose combination with LTE. Option 3 basically puts a 5G gNB next to a 4G eNB base station. The LTE eNB controls connectivity … Continue reading 5G – Part 4 – LTE-NR Carrier Aggregation – DC_3A-7A-20A-n78A
Two and a half years ago in March 2015 I had my first post on 5G on this site about 3GPP kicking off its 5G activities. A lot has happened since then and I had the occasional post but now things are getting really exciting for me: Various 3GPP groups have started churning out the … Continue reading 5G – Part 1 – A First Look Into The TS’es